Island Energy Snapshots – the Caribbean

The Islands of the Caribbean are known to have some of the highest electricity rates in the world, with the exception of only a few. This is primarily because more than 95 percent of their energy consumption is derived from imported petroleum products.

The U.S. Department of Energy and its partners, through the Energy Transition Initiative (ETI), has been working with government entities and other stakeholders to establish a long-term energy vision and successfully implement energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions. ETI provides a proven framework and technical resources and tools to help islands, states, and cities transition to a clean energy economy and achieve their clean energy goals.

The Island Energy Snapshots is one of several outputs of the ETI. It highlights the energy landscape of islands in the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the surrounding areas. I have taken the liberty of presenting below links to the Energy Snapshots of the Islands in the Caribbean. In these four page documents are relevant and up to date information about the islands’ electricity sector, energy policies, and opportunities to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels through energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy sources.

For the Energy Snapshots of the Pacific Islands click here


What’s price got to do with it?

A lot, apparently. This is especially true when it comes to how efficiently we use electricity in Trinidad and Tobago, and by extension, our natural resources, since virtually all the electricity we use is generated from Continue reading →

REdiscover: Isla Turiguano Wind Park (Cuba)

The RE discover series continues….! In this article we venture to Cuba to rediscover the Isla Turiguano Wind Park. And for those of you who are geography enthusiast, the Isla Turiguano Wind Park is located on Continue reading →


XenogyRE is the #1 Renewable Energy Blog in the Caribbean. Our goal is to educate the general public on the importance of Renewable forms of energy. Our motive is deeply rooted in our love for and interest in Energy – Continue reading →

REdiscover: SCASPA Solar Farm (St. Kitts)

The St Christopher Air, Sea and Ports Authority (SCASPA) solar farm is a 1.0 megawatt (MW) farm on the beautiful Island of St.Kitts. This farm, which is located just north of the runway at the Continue reading →

REdiscover: Rosalie Bay Resort Wind Turbine (Dominica)

This post is the first of a series of short articles that I am currently working on. The objective really is to rediscover the small grid connected renewable energy projects commissioned across the Caribbean. Continue reading →

Harnessing Geothermal Energy for Electricity Generation

In a previous article titled “Geothermal Potential in the Caribbean,” I  highlighted the vast geothermal energy potential of several islands in the Caribbean. The history of electricity production from Continue reading →

The economics of wind power in Jamaica

In late 2013, the Office of Utilities Regulation (OUR) named three preferred bidders for the supply of up to 115 MW (megawatts) of electricity generation capacity from renewable energy. The three preferred bids amounted to a total 78 MW of energy only renewable energy capacity, including two projects offering energy from wind amounting to 58 MW, and one offering solar amounting to 20 MW. The proposed delivery price to the grid ranged from US$0.1290 to

The preferred bidders were:

1. Blue Mountain Renewables LLC, to supply 34 MW of capacity from wind power at Munro, St. Elizabeth;

2. Wigton Windfarm Limited, to supply 24 MW of capacity from wind power at Rose Hill, Manchester; and

3. WRB Enterprises Inc., to supply 20 MW of capacity from Solar PV from facilities in Content Village, Clarendon.

The 20 MW solar farm will be the first of its kind in the Island, however Jamaica’s first grid-connected wind-powered generator was commissioned in February 1996 at Munro College. This wind turbine-generator, a Vestas V27 – 225 kW, was also the first grid-connected wind-energy source in the English-speaking Caribbean. The project was funded primarily by the Environmental Foundation of Jamaica (EFJ), but also included a long list of local companies and individuals. The total installation cost of the facility was US$300,000. However, much of the local services, such as JPSCo’s services and Alpart’s crane services, were donated free of cost.

The overwhelming success of the the Munro College wind turbine encouraged the Petroleum Corporation and the Government of Jamaica to commission Jamaica’s first large scale wind farm at Wigton (in the parish of Manchester) in 2004. The initial 20.7 MW wind farm, which came to be known as Wigton I, comprises of twenty three (23) NEG Micon NM52 – 900 kW wind turbines. The project was financed at a total cost of US$26.2 million with equity injection of US$ 3.2 million from the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica (PCJ), a US$ 16 million loan from the National Commercial Bank of Jamaica (NCB) and a grant of US$ 7.0 million from the Netherlands Government.

A midst several changes, including $150 million in lost revenues due to unfavorable energy rates and $120 million due to penalties imposed by JPS for reactive power demand and a fail divestment attempt in early 2007, the Wigton wind farm was expanded during the period 2009 to 2010 to include nine (9) Vestas V80 -2.0 MW wind turbines. The 18 MW project, now called Wigton II, was financed from the PetroCaribe Development Fund at total cost of US$49.9 million.

In late 2010, JPS (the owner and operator) commissioned its first wind project – a 3 MW wind farm at Munro, St. Elizabeth. This project comprises of four (4) UNISON U50 – 750 kW wind turbines and was completed at a total cost of US$9.3 million.  The Munro wind farm interconnects to JPS 24kV distribution system unlike the Wigton wind farms, which interconnects to JPS 69kV system via a 11km long tie-line. It is worthwhile noting that the grid interconnection cost can account for as much as 8-9% of the total project cost. In the case of the Wigton wind farms the 11kM 69kV line was included in the capital cost of the initial project.

The two new wind farms coming out of the OUR latest request for renewable energy in addition to the national grid are projected to cost US$40 million for the WWF’s (Wigton Windfarm) 24 MW wind farm and US$90 million for the BMR’s (Blue Mountain Renewables) 34 MW wind farm. The cost of these two project forces me to ask one key question “how does public vs private investor wind power projects costs compare?”. I thought that a good way to get a fair comparison was to look at the projects that had/have  the same/similar time horizon. So, I decided to firstly compare the Wigton II and JPS Munro wind farm projects (which were both commissioned in 2010) and secondly the proposed Wigton III and BMR Munro wind farm projects (both scheduled to be commission in 2016), as shown below.


This comparison revealed two important facts:

1. Private investor wind projects in Jamaica cost more than public wind projects. In the first case, the JPS Munro wind farm cost approximately 1.1 times the cost of the Wigton II wind farm on a per megawatt basis. Similarly, the proposed BMR Munro wind farm will cost approximately 1.6 times the proposed Wigton III wind farm on a per megawatt basis. It would be good to see a breakdown of the project cost to see exactly where the projects varied in term of cost.

2. The cost of wind power has come down by 40% for public projects and 15% for private projects since 2009.

Wind Capital Cost StructureThe cost of a wind project has a lot to do with its total size (economics of scale) however the most common way to compare wind project cost is on a per megawatt basis, as was done here. It is also worthwhile to add that the basic cost components of  wind projects typically include: turbine cost, grid interconnection, foundation, electrical installation, consultancy, financial cost, road construction, control systems, etc. The inserted table gives a break down of the % share of the total cost for each component.

Public projects, in most cases, could have a competitive advantage in terms of the land rental, financial cost and road construction components which could possibly explain to some extent why public projects have been carrying lower project cost compared to the few private projects that we have seen in Jamaica’s recent renewable energy history.

Cuba gone with the Winds

Cuba, the largest of the beautiful islands of the Caribbean – often referred to as the “Pearl of the Antilles”, recently unveiled plans to embark on a massive wind power development project. The project will see the integration Continue reading →